Management Essentials By Aashish Pahwa / December 10, 2017 Management is what directs the efforts of the group towards a definite purpose. It is an integral part of every organization irrespective of its niche as management is what leads to the fulfillment of the goals effectively and efficiently.“Management is an art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. It is an art of creating an environment in which people can perform and individuals and can co-operate towards attainment of group goals” – Harold KoontzIn his book The Practice of Management, Peter Drucker described the primary goal of a manager as “to make people productive”. However, different managers fulfill this role in different styles. Management StylesDirective Management StyleAlso called autocratic or coercive management style, the directive management style is characterized by a top-down decision-making process which often ignores subordinates inputs, creativity, learning, and growth. A directive manager closely controls and directs the employees and follows the “do it the way I say” approach.Employees working with a directive manager are often unhappy and start to lose their creativity after some time.Objective of Directive Management StyleThe main objective of the directive management style is to get immediate compliance of the subordinates and to get the task done in a traditional/usual way. Characteristics of a Directive/Coercive/Autocratic ManagerDo As I Say ApproachDirective manager dictates everything related to the work; what is to be done and how is it to be done and expects it to be done in the way he has directed.Negative MotivationAn autocratic manager often creates an environment of negative motivation where failure or a mistake is not tolerated but punished.Close Watch On EmployeesA directive manager micromanages the day, tasks, and the team.Self PraiseA coercive manager often uses self-praise to make the team follow his footsteps.AdvantagesFull ControlThe manager is in full control of the work happening in the organization which avoids conflicts and mistakes to a considerable level. More DisciplineThere is more discipline in the organization as the manager micromanages everyone and everything.DisadvantagesEmployees Don’t Have A SayA directive manager treats himself as the king and expects everyone to obey his orders. Most of the times, this attitude of the manager annoys employees as they don’t have a say in the decision or even in the work they do.Very Less LearningThe scope of learning for employees is very low as everything is dictated to them.Low Employee MoraleNegative motivation, strict orders, less learning opportunities lessen the employees’ morale.More Employee TurnoverA directive management style may not suit every organization and may lead to huge employee turnover.When To Use Directive Management StyleEmergencyAutocratic management style is most recommended at the time of emergencies and unforeseen events where close supervision is necessary for the survival or progress of the organization.High-Risk FieldsHigh-risk fields like mines, manufacturing plants, military, etc. where micromanagement is essential to avoid injury or other dangerous outcomes.When Not To Use Directive Management StyleHighly Skilled EmployeesHighly skilled employees don’t like to be dictated. They often protest against directive managers which results in low organizational harmony.Employees Are UnderdevelopedUnderdeveloped employees look for opportunities to learn and since autocratic management style support less learning, this management style isn’t recommended for instances where employees have zero or very less experience.Authoritative Management StyleAs the name suggests, an authoritative manager is someone who can be trusted and has command over his subordinates because he can be relied upon.The authoritative management style is also referred to the visionary management style as it aims at getting the work done by providing them a long-term vision and a direction to head to.ObjectiveThe main objective of authoritative manager is to mobilize the team towards a common vision and focus on the end goals. The subordinates are free to choose any means.Characteristics of An Authoritative/Visionary ManagerSets The VisionThe authoritative manager sets the vision of the company and mobilizes the team to focus on the end goals. He often takes a step back after making things clear to the employees. This not only helps employees learn new things but also opens many new doors to tap the untapped creativity of the employees. The visionary manager also helps the employees when in need.Has Firm But Fair StanceHe takes a firm but fair stance when setting up the goals and dealing with his subordinates.Uses Positive Motivation TechniquesA visionary manager helps his team whenever they need his help. He also uses positive motivation techniques like persuasion and constructive feedback to motivate his subordinates and team members.Has a High Level Of CredibilityAn authoritative manager is someone who can be relied upon. He is very credible which makes him command the respect and cooperation of his subordinates in following him.AdvantagesClaritySince the vision, the goals, and the directions to achieve the same are already discussed in the beginning, the subordinates work with much clarity to take the routes they want.Freedom To The EmployeesThe back foot strategy of the authoritative manager gives much more freedom to the employees which boost up their morale.Learning OpportunitiesSince the routes to achieve the goals are decided by the employees themselves, this management style results in many learning opportunities for them.More Creative ApproachSetting up a clear goal and giving employees the freedom to choose the routes results in may creative and untapped ways to achieve the same which eventually benefit the organization.DisadvantagesSome Employees May Take Non-Beneficial RoutesGiving employees freedom to choose the routes they want to may result in some employees taking routes which are not beneficial for the company or sometimes which may lead to losses.When To Use Authoritative Management StyleWhen Clear Vision And Goals Are RequiredOpting for authoritative management style is suggested when the organization doesn’t have a clear vision and require a credible manager to set goals for everyone.The Manager Is CredibleThe authoritative style suits the managers who are credible and have huge convincing power.When Not To Use Authoritative Management StyleWhen Subordinates Are UnderdevelopedThis style isn’t suggested when the subordinates are new to the industry and require a certain amount of superior intervention and guidance.When The Manager Isn’t CredibleIf the manager lacks credibility he will not be able to convince the employees and this style will not work.Affiliative Management StyleThe affiliative style aims at creating harmony among the people working within the organization. It is the “people first” style.ObjectiveThe main objective of an affiliative management style is to maintain organizational harmony.Characteristics of An Affiliative ManagerPeople FirstAn affiliative manager always prioritizes people and their happiness over the work.Harmony In the OrganizationHe aims to create a harmonious relationship in the workplace among everyone working in the organization.AdvantagesHappy employeesSince employee contentment is given a priority over other things by an affiliative manager, employees feel more happy being guided by this type of manager.Less ConflictsThis management style put more focus on conflict management.More FreedomThis management style is characterized by flexibility and employees are given more freedom to do the tasks their own way.DisadvantagesPerformance is affectedThe affiliative style focuses more on organizational harmony than on organizational tasks which often affect the overall performance.When To Use Affiliative Management StyleWhen There’s Less Team Spirit Among EmployeesThis management style is most suited to teams where there’s less team spirit and the manager feels affiliative style is important to maintain organizational harmony and future progress.If Tasks Performed Doesn’t Require High-Quality PerformanceAn affiliative style is preferred in the organization where the tasks performed by the employees are routine and does not require some top-notch or different approach.When Not To Use Affiliative Management StyleOutput Driven IndustriesIndustries where the future of the organization largely depends on the output and performance of the employees.When High Performance Is RequiredIn the times of crisis or emergency where the organization becomes hugely dependent on the output to survive in the market.Democratic Management StyleAlso referred to as participative management style, democratic style focuses more on consensus and building commitment among the employees.ObjectiveAs the name suggests, democratic management style supports democracy and its principles and aims at doing the task with the consensus of the employees.Characteristics of A Democratic/Participatory ManagerEncourages Participation Of EveryoneA democratic manager encourages the participation of every employee, listens to everyone and put an emphasis on democratic judgment.Motivates PositivelyThe participatory manager motivates the subordinates by listening to everyone, giving positive feedback, and by rewarding the team for their efforts.AdvantagesBuilds A Well Connected TeamThis management style builds cooperation among the team members who are encouraged to work together.Motivates The EmployeesParticipatory style motivates the employees better than other management styles as they get to participate in the decision-making process.Team Feels Satisfied With The DecisionsSince the decisions are made by the team for the team, the employees feel more satisfied as compared to when the manager takes decisions themselves.DisadvantagesSlow ProgressThe democratic style requires a manager to listen to every employee before making the final decision.Manager Has Less Say In Decision MakingSince the decisions are made according to the consensus of the employees, the manager often has to take the decision against his own will.When To Use Democratic Management StyleWhen The Decision Making Requires BrainstormingThere are many decisions which require a second thought or suggestions from others. Democratic management style suits best to workplaces where managers have to make such decisions.When Subordinates Are ExperiencedParticipatory management style suits best to the organization where the employees are experienced and can give good inputs during the decision making process.When Not To Use Democratic Management StyleInexperienced EmployeesThis style is not suited to organizations where the employees are undertrained or inexperienced.When Decisions Are To Be Made InstantaneouslyParticipation of every employee requires a lot of time and can cause a huge lag in the decision-making process. This style is not suited when decisions are required to be made by the managers instantaneously.Pacesetting Management StylePacesetting managers are high achievers in a certain market/niche and use their experience to get the most out of the highly-motivated workforce.ObjectiveThe objective of this management style is to combine the prior experience of the pacesetter and the high motivation and energy of the team to accomplish the task with high engagement and motivation.Characteristics of A Pacesetter ManagerHigh AchieverA pacesetter is a high achiever in his own niche and uses his experience to guide the team.Works At A Great PaceThe pacesetter prefers to work at a great pace from the start. The team under him performs with high energy, engagement, and motivation.Prefers To Do Many Tasks HimselfHe often sets an example by doing many tasks himself.Motivates By Setting High Standards Of ExcellenceHe motivates his subordinates my setting high standards of excellence and those who can’t match it are assigned to different tasks.AdvantagesHigh Energy And Excitement In The TeamEmployees often like to work with some renowned figure. This motivates them to perform better.More MotivationSetting up high standards of excellence motivates the employees to outperform themselves.DisadvantagesImpossibly High StandardsManagers sometimes set impossibly high standards which demotivates the employees.Too Much PressureThe never-ending expectation of outperforming themselves often pressurizes the employees.When To Use Pacesetting Management StyleWhen The Manager Is An Expert In his NicheThe Pacesetting style works only when the manager is an expert in his field who can set the pace for the employees.When The Employees Are Experienced EnoughInexperienced employees can never match the goals set by the pacesetters and this style will prove to be futile when used with inexperienced employees.When Not To Use Pacesetting Management StyleWhen Employees Require CoachingThis style is not suited to organizations where employees are not expert and require guidance to do the tasks.When The Manager Is Not An ExpertA manager has to be expert in his niche to adopt this management style.Coaching Management StyleAlso referred to mentorship management style, the coaching style involves coaching and guiding the subordinates to complete the tasks.ObjectiveThe coaching style aims at a long-term professional growth of the employees by providing them mentorship and learning opportunities.Characteristics of An Mentor/Coach ManagerMentors EmployeesHe has great willingness to help and mentor his subordinates and provide them learning opportunities for their long-term professional growth.Is Expert & Highly ExperiencedHe is an expert in his field and uses his expertise to help employees succeed in their life.AdvantagesMore Motivated EmployeesSince the ambitions of employees are also kept in the mind while mentoring them, they feel more motivated and satisfied.Better Senior Subordinate BondThis management style strengthens the senior-subordinate bond as seniors help the subordinates in their long-term professional growth.DisadvantagesRequires Highly Skilled ManagersMentorship management style requires the managers to be highly skilled and expert in their niche.When To Use Mentorship Management StyleWhen Employees Need MotivationThis management style suits best to the organization where employees require more motivation to complete the tasks. When Not To Use Mentorship Management StyleWhen The Manager Isn’t An Expert In His NicheAn inexperienced manager proves out to be a bad mentor.Go On, Tell Us What You Think!Did we miss something? Come on! Tell us what you think about our article in the comments section.