How To Write A Job Description
One of the most important functions of the Human Resources Division of any company today is Talent Management. Talent management plays an important role in the business strategy since it manages one of the most important assets of the company – its people.
Talent Management starts with an understanding of the jobs needed to be filled and the human traits and competencies needed for these jobs effectively. Job Analysis does precisely this by determining the duties of the company’s positions and the characteristics of the people to hire them.
An integral product of Job Analysis is the Job Description.
What Is A Job Description?
A job description is a written statement of what an employee actually does, how he or she does it and what the job’s working conditions are. This information is then used to write a Job Specification – a part of Job Description – that lists the knowledge, abilities and skills required to perform the job satisfactorily.
An entrepreneur can use a good job description not only as a valuable aid in the job-recruiting process but also as an outline for reporting relationships and working conditions. It can be used for:
- Performance Management
- Training and Employee Development
- Recognition and Rewards
- Maintaining Discipline
Elements Of Job Description
What all elements should a Job Description contain? What should the format of a Job Description be?
Here is the answer:
It contains the job title specifying the name of the job such as an inventory control clerk, management trainee, supervisor etc. It might also contain the location in terms of its facility/division and department or the supervisor’s name and details. In cases where there a category is used for defining the job, such category is clearly stated.
Job summary contains the essence of the job and includes only its major functions and activities. Example – For a supervisor, the job summary could be – “the mailroom supervisor receives, sorts and delivers all incoming mail property”.
Responsibilities, Duties, And Authority Of The Incumbent
This essentially forms the heart of the Job Description. It should present a list of the job’s significant responsibilities and duties. Example – For a sales role, the responsibilities would look like “achieve quantitative sales goal” and “determine sales priorities and fulfil targets”. This part might also specify the jobholder’s authority limits. This is essential because it specifies the limits within which the employee has to function and also to give him/her an idea of the kind of stakes involved. Example – a job holder might have the power to approve purchases up to Rs 10000, or take leaves without informing up to 2 times a month, or hiring a sales assistant after completion of specific targets etc.
When a Job Description is written for the disabled, care has to be taken to ensure that the person has the required skills and expertise to perform the job. Factors to consider are:
- Whether the position exists to perform that function.
- The number of other employees available to perform the function.
- The degree of expertise or skill required to perform the function.
Standards Of Performance And Working Conditions
This section lists the standards the company expects the employee to achieve for each of the Job Description’s main duties and responsibilities. One way to set standards is to finish the statement, “I will be completely satisfied with your work when….”. This sentence and the like should result in a usable set of performance standards that can be easily identified and measured. Example –
Duty: Accurately posting Accounts Payable
- Post all invoices within the same working day.
- Allowed to commit no more than 5 posting errors each month.
- Route all the invoices to the proper department managers for approval latest by the following day.
The Job Description may also list the job’s working conditions, such as the noise level during work hours, any specific hazardous conditions or the exposure to heat level etc.
Also known as employee specifications, this section states the human traits, qualification, and experience required to perform the job. It shows what kind of person to recruit and on what qualities should the person be tested. Elements of job specifications are –
- Emotional Characteristics
- Sensory Demands
Even though not visible at the first glance, the company profile is still a very important element of a job description. It gives the job applicants a glimpse of the company’s achievements, culture, and other important information. It also includes the links to the social media profiles, company mentions, and testimonials which may help the job applicant to know more about the company.
How To Write A Good Job Description?
Writing a job description is easy. Thousands of people do that every minute. But how to write a job description that stands out? How to improve your job response and get more qualified applicants to apply for your job listing?
Here’s the secret sauce –
Write A Crisp Job Title
According to a study, words like “ninja,” “badass”, “unicorn” and “rockstar” are major deterrents for women job seekers. Also, avoid using superlatives like brilliant, excellent, etc. as they give an impression of unrealistic goals and also result in fewer job applications.
Write a job title that explains –
- The job responsibilities. For example, job titles which include suffix or prefix like the manager, chief, supervisor, etc.
- What the person does on the job. For example, housekeeper, chef, social media manager etc.
- The job responsibilities and the job level. For example, chief accountant, head supervisor, electrical superintendent, etc.
Keep your job title simple, crisp, and not misleading. For a Call Center Agent, write that you’re looking for a ‘Call Center Agent’, not a ‘Sales & Marketing Executive’. Such disingenuous job titles attract the wrong people, increases your workload, and you may even miss out on the qualified candidates.
Be professional and relatable when it comes to writing a job description. Most of the candidates skim job descriptions, so try avoiding jargons and long paragraphs. Be to-the-point. You can always explain the intricacies in the later stages.
Focus On The Structure
Your job description should have an aesthetic appeal. Divide the description into different sections, write small paragraphs and use bullet points and formatting tools to help skimmers find the details they look for.
Write A Clear Job Specification
You should know the difference between a job description and a job specification. While job specification is a part of a job description, it has a different role altogether.
The job specification states what qualifications, experience, and traits, etc. the company is looking for in an ideal job candidate.
Writing a Job Specification for trained is relatively simple where the focus is on the previous job experience, quality of training, and other hard skills. The problem is more complex when you’re writing a job specification for untrained people. Here, the focus is on qualities such as physical traits, personality, interests, or sensory skills which show the person’s potential for performing the job efficiently.
Using your own judgement for preparing a job specification would include the use of generic and universal traits that are desired from every employee. These would include soft skills like industriousness, ability to learn, taking initiative, displaying high integrity etc.
Basing job specifications on statistical analysis rather than only judgement is the more desired approach, but also more difficult. The aim here is to statistically determine the relationship between some human trait and some criterion of job effectiveness such as performance. This procedure has the following steps:
- Analyse the job and decide how to measure performance.
- Select personal traits that you believe should predict performance.
- Test candidates for these traits.
- Measure these candidate’s subsequent job performance.
- Statistically analyse the relationship between human trait and job performance.
Another method can be alternatively used – The Job Requirements Matrix.
A typical matrix uses five columns in the following manner:
Column 1: Each of the job’s four or five main duties.
Column 2: The task statements for the main tasks associated with each job duty.
Column 3: The relative importance of each job duty
Column 4: The time spent on each job duty
Column 5: The knowledge, skills, ability and other human characteristics (KSAO) related to the main job duty.
Column 6: Importance of KSAO
Focus On Other TouchPoints As Well
Sell Your Company!
Look out for touchpoints other than the job listing portal and make sure that they are in synergy. These include company review websites like Glassdoor, Google My Business; your own website, your careers/work with us page, social media profiles, etc. A good practice is to mention the positive reviews and give these links in the job description itself.
Sell Your Job
Your job description should also contain triggers and compelling benefits to make candidates apply for your job instead of others in the listing. It should also include compelling reasons for the candidates to leave their current job for good.
Don’t Use These Strategies
Job descriptions should be an offer to invite everyone who is capable to apply for the job. Make sure you stay away from these practices –
Discrimination: Even an unconscious bias against any specific sex, gender, race, caste, etc. will cost you a lot of good candidates.
Unrealistic Requirements: Identify what’s required and what can be learned during the job. Job specifications should only have minimum requirements that are needed for the job. You can further select the perfect candidate based on the other stages.
Negativity: The goal of a job description to get as many job applications as possible. Try to be as positive as you can. Don’t sound rude or negative. Instead of framing the sentence like this – “don’t apply if you don’t have at least 4 years of experience”, frame your sentences in this manner – “This is a senior level job. Preference will be given to candidates having more than 4 years of experience.”
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